John Broskie's Guide to Tube Circuit Analysis & Design

25 november 2016


Quasi-Single-Ended Amplifier
I have lots more to say on the topic of single-ended amplifiers, but I only have so much time today, so here is a quick post. I have enjoyed an email exchange with TCJer, Sheldon, who is designing interesting hybrid power amplifier topologies. He pointed out that the new hot thing is to load a chip power amplifier's output, such as the LM3886, with a constant-current source, which will cause a displacement of the amplifier's crossover points within the output stage transistors. Cambridge Audio calls the technique Class-XD, which I covered in post number 88新加坡2分彩计划软件, in 2006.

In 2002, in the Tube CAD Journal, you will find the following schematic.

新加坡2分彩计划软件 this idea is old-hat to those working with opamps, so i wasn't claiming any new topology, let alone creating a new class of operation, rather i was pointing out that such a setup could be implemented externally to an existing power amplifier; in other words, as an add-on enhancement in its own enclosure.

of course, the huge problem is heat, as the existing power amplifier's output stage will now greatly increase its dissipation. with chip amplifiers, this problem is particularly acute, as they are relatively small and, thus, quite heat sensitive. think about it: a power amplifier made of discrete parts might hold six output transistors per channel, each transistor being rated for 150w and each offering a thermal resistance of only 0.7c/w. in contrast, the lm3886's thermal resistance is 1c/w for the entire amplifier.

新加坡2分彩计划软件 the workaround i came up with is to feed the chip amplifier's positive rail voltage through a quasi-class-g setup. it's not real class-g, as only one positive power-supply rail is used, not two. (if you want, you can think of the following amplifier as being a 4w single-ended design, which can put out 36w in push-pull class-ab.)

okay, i agree that the schematic looks super complicated, but the idea behind it is simple. as the amplifier's output swings positively, its positive power-supply rail voltage rises. as the amplifier's output swings negatively, its positive power-supply rail voltage falls, but only down to about 10vdc, where it remains until output voltage swings back up.

新加坡2分彩计划软件why bother? why not just let the positive rail voltage follow the output signal?

it looks good, but looks can be deceiving, as we all know all too well. the big problem here is that although the amplifier's output can swing -25v, the input stage only sees a -1vpk input signal, but the power-supply rail positive voltage is at -12.5v. not good. in fact, the lm3886's positive rail voltage should never fall below 9v, according to its data-sheet; thus the need for a lower voltage limit of +10v.

the more that i thought about it, the more i began to worry about the zener being able to engage quickly enough, say at 20khz. it might pass the spice test, but not the reality test. the workaround is to keep the zener constantly conducting, as show below.

新加坡2分彩计划软件now, when the output swings sufficiently negative to forward bias the 1n4148 signal diode, the mosfet stops following the output voltage.

Okay, John, this is all good stuff, but where are the dang tubes?

tubes, you want tubes? no problem.

the tube-base input buffer runs off the lm3886's power-supply rails. the resistor labeled with a "?" serves two purposes. the first is to allow a path to ground for the 1µcoupling capacitor at startup, when the triodes are cold and still not conducting. the second is that allows us to force some 2nd harmonic distortion on the buffer's output.

新加坡2分彩计划软件i like to run my 6dj8 triodes, however, with a bit more than 30v of cathode-to-plate voltage. the following design uses 80v of cathode-to-plate voltage.

before anyone panic, let me assure that getting the four power-supply rail voltages from a single center-tapped secondary is no big deal.

新加坡2分彩计划软件note the +/-90 volt rails, not +/-80v rails. i assume that two rc filters would be used. a 44vac ct power transformer would be used.

新加坡2分彩计划软件happy black friday.



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User Guides for GlassWare Software
新加坡2分彩计划软件 Just click on any of the above images to download a PDF of the user guides.

新加坡2分彩计划软件for those of you who still have old computers running windows xp (32-bit) or any other windows 32-bit os, i have setup the download availability of my old old standards: , , and . the downloads are at the glassware-yahoo store and the price is only $9.95 for each program.

新加坡2分彩计划软件so many have asked that i had to do it.


i do plan on remaking all of these programs into 64-bit versions, but it will be a huge ordeal, as programming requires vast chunks of noise-free time, something very rare with children running about. ideally, i would love to come out with versions that run on ipads and android-os tablets.



Kit User Guide PDFs
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新加坡2分彩计划软件e-mail from glassware customers

hi john,

I received the Aikido PCB today - thank you for the first rate shipping speed.
    Wanted to let you know that this is simply the best PCB I have had in my hands, bar none. The quality is fabulous, and your documentation is superb. I know you do this because you love audio, but I think your price of $39 is a bit of a giveaway! I'm sure you could charge double and still have happy customers.
     Looking forward to building the Aikido, will send some comments when I'm done!
   Thank you, regards
新加坡2分彩计划软件 Gary

mr broskie,

i bought an aikido stereo linestage kit from you some days ago, and i received it just this monday. i have a few things to say about it. firstly, i'm extremely impressed at the quality of what i've been sent. in fact, this is the highest quality kit i've seen anywhere, of anything. i have no idea how you managed to fit all this stuff in under what i paid for it. second, your shipping was lightning-quick. just more satisfaction in the bag, there. i wish everyone did business like you.

sean h.

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